Simply Explained Guide of Abortion Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Written By Dr: Nabila Al-Nabarawy

Abortion is the termination of pregnancy before the age of viability of the fetus.

What’s fetus viability?

It’s the potential ability of the fetus to live outside the uterus 

Timing of abortion

1-WHO and developed countries
The 20th week and 500 gm fetus weight 

2-Developing countries 
The 28th week and 1100-1200 gm fetus weight 

3-Islamic countries 
24th week 

Abortion Types

1-Induced abortion

It’s the termination of pregnancy due to the expected danger of this pregnancy on the mother health because of any disease she might’ve.

2-Threatened abortion

It’s the vaginal hemorrhage that may happen in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy with abdominal muscles painful cramps.

These symptoms may indicate that abortion is expected.

3-Spontaneous abortion 

It’s the type of abortion in which the miscarriage happens spontaneously due to the following causes:

Causes of Abortion

A-Maternal Causes

Chronic hypertension 
Endocrine disturbances (Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus)
Chronic renal disease 
Acute fevers (viral or bacterial)
Asymptomatic bacteriuria 
Maternal infections as Rubella
Smoking and alcoholism 
Surgical operations during early pregnancy 
Local causes in the genital tract
Hypoplastic or irritable uterus
Cervical tears
Trauma to uterus
Uterus fibroid
Foreign body (intrauterine device)
Tumors (Endometriosis)

B-Fetal causes 

1-Foetal growth malformations (neural tube defect)

2-Chromosomal anomalies 

3-Genetic abnormalities 

4-Fetus asphyxia secondarily to maternal hypoxia due to placental infarction or cord true knot disorder 

Symptoms of Abortion 

It’s similar to the early symptoms of pregnancy, like vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal painful cramps.


Positive Pregnancy test or BHCG

BHCG double/2-3 days of healthy intra uterine pregnancy 



1-Rest, sedation 
2-Antispasmodic or tocolytics 
3-Anti D in case if the mother is Rh -Ve

B-Termination of pregnancy 

In case of severe bleeding or absence of foetal pulsations.


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